A Concise Synthesis of (−)-Lasonolide A
Barry M. Trost, Craig E. Stivala, Kami L. Hull, Audris Huang, and Daniel R. Fandrick
Not so many total syntheses have been published these days but this one caught my attention (some might say for obvious reasons…). Though lasanolide A has been made a couple of times but never in such a neat fashion utilizing some pretty efficient metal catalyzed processes. Trost’s retrosynthesis is shown below. The two major fragments were assembled by an intermolecular ruthenium mediated enyne coupling and a Yamaguchi macrocyclization. The western fragment in turn derives from an alkyne precursor to which the side chain is attached by consecutive HWE and Wittig olefinations. The stereochemistry is set by a highly efficient ProPhenol aldol reaction. The eastern fragment also makes use of a HWE olefination and a Hiyama coupling, respectively. A ruthenium catalyzed hydrosilylation and cross metathesis then give retrosynthetically the diol shown whose stereochemical information derives from an enzymatic reduction and an old-school CBS reduction.
Starting in the forward sense the side chain of the western fragment was prepared in just four steps. Neopentyl cuprate addition to propargyl alcohol was followed by acetonide cleavage / esterification. TBS protection and formation of the Wittig salt furnished fragment 3 in a pretty efficient manner.
The other part of the western fragment originates from a ProPhenol mediated aldol reaction to give 6 in nearly enatiomerically pure form. DIBAL reduction and subsequent TBDPS protection was followed by stereoselective acetal formation and Ley oxidation yielding 8. Only one diastereomer is obtained in the acetalization step under thermodynamic conditions. Deprotection of the alcohol directly provided the hemiacetal 9 as an inconsequential mixture of diastereomers. HWE olefination and DIBAL reduction produced aldehyde 10 which could be coupled with 3 in the presence of KHMDS. After a survey of methods the acetal cleavage was preferably accomplished with LiBF4 completing the synthesis of the western fragment.
Ok, now let us have look at the synthesis of the eastern fragment. It kicks off with an old school Blaise reaction (Reformatsky with a nitrile) to give dicarbonyl 12 which eventually was reduced to hydroxyester 13 by an enzyme called CDX-024. TIPS-protection and two-step conversion of the ester to ketone 15 was followed by a these-days-rather-rare CBS reduction to propargyl alcohol 16. Ensuing trans-selective hydrosilylation developed in the Trost labs and cross-metathesis with crotonaldehyde furnished directly pyran 18.
The remaining acid side chain was introduced by HWE olefination using lithium hydroxide in the presence of mole sieves. Allylation utilizing a Hiyama-coupling of the vinyl silane, saponification and TBS protection then furnished eastern fragment 22.
Completion of the synthesis was brought about by a powerful intermolecular ruthenium mediated enyne coupling giving mainly the linear isomer 23 in a 3 : 1 ratio. This result is rather unprecedented because this reaction usually favors the formation of branched products. As acetone proved to be the most effective solvent in this reaction under the conditions employed the formation of an acetonide was observed which was cleaved off with CSA in an ensuing step. After selective TBS-protection of the three least hindered alcohols the seco acid was closed under Yamaguchi macrolactionization conditions to give after global deprotection lasonolide A in an overall yield of 1.6 % (16 steps LLS with respect to allyl cyanide).
A really impressive synthesis relying mainly on powerful transition metal catalyzed transformation. I hope you also liked the quiz… If you have any suggestions please let me know.